8 Types Of Audit Evidence Flashcards

8 Types Of Audit Evidence Flashcards

8 types of audit evidence

Sufficiency and appropriateness are interrelated and apply to audit evidence obtained from both control tests and from substantive procedures. Two qualities of audit evidence that are related are sufficiency and the appropriateness of audit evidence. The sufficiency of audit evidence is the amount or quantity of audit evidence. The risks of misstatement the auditor assess to determine the quantity of audit evidence that the auditor needs. Tests of details are used by auditors to collect evidence that the balances, disclosures, and underlying transactions associated with a client’s financial statements are correct.

What are the factors that affect sufficiency and appropriateness of audit evidence?

The sufficiency of audit evidence relates to its quantity while its appropriateness relates to its quality. The appropriateness of audit evidence further depends on two factors, relevance, and reliability.

And others documents use by businesses to support financial transactions or events in the financial statements. Before auditors could make the conclusion on the financial statements as a whole or any part, they need to make sure that the evidence they obtain is sufficient enough with appropriate quality to make the conclusion. Reperformance allows auditors to reperform various internal control procedures of the client to identify any weaknesses.

The Three Different Types Of Audits

An organization may also conduct follow-up audits to verify preventive actions were taken as a result of performance issues that may be reported as opportunities for improvement. Other times organizations may forward identified performance issues to management for follow-up. Customers may suggest or require that their suppliers conform to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, or safety criteria, and federal regulations and requirements may also apply. A third-party audit normally results in the issuance of a certificate stating that the auditee organization management system complies with the requirements of a pertinent standard or regulation. Some audits are named according to their purpose or scope. The scope of a department or function audit is a particular department or function.

8 types of audit evidence

Audit Evidence is the information that the auditor uses in arriving at a conclusion on the basis of which he forms his opinion. The auditor 8 types of audit evidence should obtain sufficient and appropriate evidence which enables the auditor to arrive at a conclusion and supports his opinion.

A set of actions and procedures to control an organization. They aim to test and prove that processes are being conducted effectively and follow due control mechanisms. They also aim to detect opportunities for improvement in the audit process. Internal audit serves an important role for companies in fraud prevention. Recurring analysis of a company’s operations and maintaining rigorous systems of internal controls can prevent and detect various forms of fraud and other accounting irregularities.

These and other automated tools and techniques are referenced in the guidance accompanying the audit evidence standard that was issued last month. After practitioners’ experiences over the past several months, these techniques likely will feel more familiar today than they did several months ago. Appropriateness is the measure QuickBooks of the quality of the audit evidence, i.e., the reliability and relevance of the audit evidence. To be appropriate, the audit evidence must be reliable and relevant to support the conclusions that the auditor uses to form the basis of his audit opinion. Audit evidence can be divided into internal and external sources.

Auditing Evidence

risk of incorrect acceptance (誤受風險) – this is the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded transaction or account balance is not materially misstated when, in fact, it is materially misstated. risk of incorrect rejection (誤拒風險) – this is the risk that the sample supports the conclusion that the recorded transaction or account balance is materially misstated when, in fact, it is not materially misstated. 5.3 The auditor may select certain items from a population because of specific characteristics they possess. The results of items selected in this way cannot be projected onto the whole population but may be used in conjunction with other audit evidence concerning the rest of the population. Seeking confirmation from another source of details in client’s accounting records, for example, confirmation from bank of bank balances.

That means not every piece of information or supporting document is suitable to be used as audit evidence. A key difference between compliance audits, conformance audits, and improvement audits is the collection of evidence related to organization performance versus evidence to verify conformance or compliance to a standard or procedure. An organization may conform to its procedures for taking orders, but if every order is subsequently changed two or three times, management may have cause for concern and want to rectify the inefficiency. Because my objective is to corroborate those that are material. By doing Substantive Test or audit procedures, these are the test I’m going to do in order to substantiate or corroborate the assertions that management is making. So that’s kind of the big picture of where we’re about to go.

For example, comparing recorded purchase transactions in the purchases journal to supporting evidence such as invoices, paid cheques, and receiving reports. 1.2 Describe the four audit evidence decisions that the auditor must make to prepare an audit programme. An Auditor’s certificate is a written confirmation of the accuracy of the facts relating to the accounts for a particular time or to a specific matter, which does not involve any estimate or opinion. An audit of both financial statements and the documents underlying them. That is, a complete audit does not only look at financial statements to make sure they make sense, it also makes sure that statements compare well with the documents used to create them.

8 types of audit evidence

And we’re gonna see that, a good way to remember it is this mnemonic or memory aid U-PERCV. So we’re trying to corroborate, ’cause at the end of the day we’re trying to give an opinion. The documents examined by the auditor are the records used by the client to provide information for conducting its business in an organized manner. An example of inspection used as a test of controls is the inspection of records for evidence of authorization. Implicit or explicit statements of fact by management that are associated with the entity’s financial statements. Evidence obtained from the entity under effective internal control is next. Identify the 3 purposes that might be served by performing analytical procedures.

With respect to other errors, Bedard & Biggs show that auditors can improve hypothesis generation of possible errors by examining patterns of discrepancies. For example, Houghton & Fogarty carried out a survey to determine the characteristics of auditor-detected errors and whether areas in which errors occur could be determined during the planning process. They found that 73 percent of errors examined were or could have been identified during the planning stage based on prior knowledge of the client. refers to the receipt of a written response from an independent third party to corroborate information contained in the accounts.

Inquiries are the different questions asked by the auditor of the company to the management or concerned employee of the company in the areas where the auditor has the doubt. Such an effect has major implications for audit practice, since this suggests that the order in which auditors receive and evaluate evidence may have a substantial impact on decision-making. Early studies of probabilistic judgments by auditors suggest that auditors are also subject to many of the heuristics and biases found in the psychology literature, such as representativeness and anchoring and adjustment. This research has recently been extended in a number of areas directly related to auditor’s collection and evaluation of evidence. Analyzes all elements of a quality system and judges its degree of adherence to the criteria of industrial management and quality evaluation and control systems.

, which assumes that belief-adjustment follows an anchoring and adjustment process, to study audit evidence which is obtained in a sequential manner. involves seeking information from client staff or other knowledgeable individuals independent of the client. For example, client staff could be asked about reasons for a drop in sales revenue. Corroborative evidence should be obtained from the client. One most common example of analytical procedures is checking the three-way relationships between revenue, receivable and cash.


Similarly, it can help auditors in gathering other types of audit evidence. If the client uses a computerized accounting system, auditors can also use electronic procedures for obtaining audit evidence. The major reason an independent auditor gathers audit evidence is to support their conclusions related to financial statement items. For auditors’ work to be trustworthy, they must use proper procedures and techniques to evaluate the truthfulness and fairness of the financial statements. Therefore, they gather audit evidence to support these procedures and their opinion.

  • The audit evidence are important to be collected by an auditor during the process of his auditing work.
  • The checklist is created in step two and used in step three of the Five main steps in ISO 9001 Internal Audit.
  • They can include inspection, observation, confirmation, recalculation, reperformance and analytical procedures, in addition to inquiry, as the latter does not normally provide sufficient audit evidence on its own.
  • 2.2 Audit evidence comprises source documents, accounting records and corroborating (確證) information from both internal and external sources.
  • If the object being examined, such as a sales invoice, has no inherent value, the evidence is called documentation.

The inspection involves examining records or documents, whether internal or external, in paper form, electronic form, or other media, or a physical examination of an asset. Analytical procedures are a type of audit evidence used during an audit that can indicate potential issues with an organization’s financial records, which the auditors what are retained earnings can then investigate more completely. Auditors use analytical procedures to evaluate financial information by analyzing plausible relationships among financial information and nonfinancial information. An auditor has to collect all the possible audit evidence to establish the truthfulness of the system to record these transactions.

So when we go through and talk about it we’re saying sufficient appropriate Audit Evidence, enough good evidence. We’re gonna have to break down those terms, sufficiency, appropriateness and Audit Evidence, because it seems like, again, all like, “Oh, it’s just a word, sufficient appropriate Audit Evidence,” but that’s what we need. Management is asserting that everything is understandable and properly classified, your job is to obtain enough good evidence, sufficient, appropriate, corroborative Audit Evidence to substantiate that. Management is asserting, and basically this is one of the broad categories but presentation disclosure, everything’s properly presented, adequately disclosed. Existence and occurrence, all the assets exist, all the transactions that created the asset actually occurred. A tax audit is an analysis of the tax returns submitted by an individual or business entity, to see if the tax information and any resulting income tax payment is valid. These audits are usually targeted at returns that result in excessively low tax payments, to see if an additional assessment can be made.

8 types of audit evidence

Relating Evidence To Conclusions Standards experts and members of U.S. Companies in certain high-risk categories—such as toys, pressure vessels, elevators, gas appliances, and electrical and medical devices—wanting to do business in Europe must comply with Conformité Europeënne Mark requirements. One way for organizations to comply is to have their management system certified by a third-party audit organization to management system requirement criteria . Check the adequacy and effectiveness of the process controls established by procedures, work instructions, flowcharts, and training and process specifications. Examine the resources applied to transform the inputs into outputs, the environment, the methods followed, and the measures collected to determine process performance. Now, a couple of things on sources, Audit Evidence obtained directly by the auditor is more reliable than Audit Evidence obtained indirectly, so again, direct is more reliable than indirect. Anyway, so that’s what’s going on as far as different sources, where the information is coming from.

Internal audits are often referred to as first-party audits, while external audits can be either second-party or third-party. It basically says we need sufficient appropriate Audit Evidence from different audit procedures in order to corroborate or substantiate management’s assertions. So, as we continue on, now we’re here performing our substantive procedures, then formulated opinion, and draft the report. So this is what we’re ta– So keep in your mind where we are in the scope of things, where are we in the course of the audit, we’ve gone all the way over to here doing our Substantive Testing. Then we said, okay, let’s go up to obtaining and understanding.

What Is Auditing?

Physical examination is a direct means of verifying that an asset actually exists , and to a lesser extent whether existing assets are recorded . It is considered one of the most reliable and useful types of audit evidence. Generally, physical examination is an objective means of ascertaining both the quantity and the description of the asset. In some cases, it is also a useful method for evaluating an asset’s condition or quality.

Why do companies audit?

An audit is important as it provides credibility to a set of financial statements and gives the shareholders confidence that the accounts are true and fair. It can also help to improve a company’s internal controls and systems.

The investigation might involve performing more substantive tests. For example, auditor may use the inspection procedure to test the occurrence assertion of expense transactions by vouching them to receiving reports, supplier’s invoice and purchase orders. Evidence gathered by formal or informal inquiry generally cannot stand alone as convincing. Hence, auditors usually perform other procedures together with the inquiry such as inspecting the supporting documents to ensure that the explanation provided by clients can be relied upon. If the size of the data is enormous, then the auditor generally considers the material things only as his sample for verification of the data and not the whole of the data. In case the data having the problem are left out by the auditor in his sample, then it will not present the correct picture of the company.

Recalculation consists of checking the mathematical accuracy of documents or records. Recalculation may be performed manually or electronically.

These assertions are used by management to confirm the existence and completeness of accounts in balance items. Sometimes it is called the income statement’s assertions. These are the assertions that use by management to confirm the accuracy and completeness of the financial transactions and events in the income statement. Auditors should prepare audit procedures to confirms and verify the financial statements’ assertion as part of their materiality assessment in the financial statements. There are many procedures that auditors use to obtain audit evidence to support their conclusion. In this article, we will discuss various topics related to the audit evidence including the types of evidence, the procedures that use by auditors to gather the evidence as well as the quality of it. Sufficient and appropriate audit evidence is important for the auditor to form audit opinions.

These factors include things such as limitations enforced or imposed by the management of the client. Similarly, some restrictions may be outside of both the auditors’ and the client’s control. Some other limitations may also come due to the nature of the client or the timing of the audit. ) have investigated evidence-search strategies used by auditors.

Author: Craig W. Smalley, E.A.

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